Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 319

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 1193

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 316

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 319

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 293

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 316

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 319

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadClass() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 294

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 157

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 159

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::includeOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 288

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 290

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 295

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 316

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 319

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadClass() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 296

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 157

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 159

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::includeOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 288

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 290

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadClass() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 297

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 157

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 159

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::includeOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 288

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 290

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadClass() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 298

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 157

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 159

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::includeOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 288

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 290

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadClass() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 299

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 157

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 159

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::includeOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 288

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 290

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadClass() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 300

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 157

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 159

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::includeOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 288

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 290

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadClass() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 301

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 157

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 159

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::includeOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 288

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 290

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadClass() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 302

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 157

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 159

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::includeOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 288

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 290

Strict Standards: Declaration of PNObjectArray::setData() should be compatible with PNObject::setData($data, $cache = false) in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/PNObjectArray.class.php on line 507

Strict Standards: Declaration of PNObjectArray::get() should be compatible with & PNObject::get($key = 0, $field = 'id', $force = false) in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/PNObjectArray.class.php on line 507

Strict Standards: Declaration of PNObjectArray::getWhere() should be compatible with & PNObject::getWhere($where) in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/PNObjectArray.class.php on line 507

Strict Standards: Declaration of PNObjectArray::select() should be compatible with & PNObject::select($key, $field = 'id', $where = '') in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/PNObjectArray.class.php on line 507

Strict Standards: Declaration of PNObjectArray::getDataField() should be compatible with PNObject::getDataField($key, $default = NULL) in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/PNObjectArray.class.php on line 507

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadClass() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 303

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 157

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 159

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::includeOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 288

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 290

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadClass() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 304

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 157

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 159

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::includeOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 288

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 290

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadClass() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 305

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 157

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 159

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::includeOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 288

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 290

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadClass() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 306

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 157

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 159

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::includeOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 288

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 290

Strict Standards: Non-static method DBConnectionStack::init() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 474

Deprecated: mysql_connect(): The mysql extension is deprecated and will be removed in the future: use mysqli or PDO instead in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/classes/adodb/drivers/adodb-mysql.inc.php on line 367

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadOneFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnMod.php on line 506

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFiles() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 93

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 119

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 119

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::includeOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 288

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 290

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadOneFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnMod.php on line 506

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFiles() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 93

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 119

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 119

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::includeOnce() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 288

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::_is_included() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 290

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadOneFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/pnMod.php on line 506

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFiles() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 93

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::loadFile() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 119

Strict Standards: Non-static method DataUtil::formatForOS() should not be called statically in /www/htdocs/w00d1f37/html/includes/Loader.class.php on line 45

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Gesellschaftsstudie zeigt: Mehr Gleichheit macht alle glücklicher | .. für ein 'Soziales Dorf' | Projektidee für soziales & kulturelles Gemeinschaftswohnen auf einem Ökobauernhof

Gesellschaftsstudie zeigt: Mehr Gleichheit macht alle glücklicher

Eingereicht von Initiative am 03. Apr 2010 - 08:30 Uhr

Bild 0 für Gesellschaftsstudie zeigt: Mehr Gleichheit macht alle glücklicher

Internationale Studie: Ungerechte Gesellschaften machen die Menschen seelisch krank. Das Erstaunliche dabei, arme und reiche gleichermassen.

Der Soziologe Richard Wilkinson und die Medizinerin Kate Pickett belegen mit einem Gebirge an Datenmaterial, dass gerechtere Gesellschaften für alle gut sind - und dass ungerechte Gesellschaften alle krank machen.
Eine fulminante Studie [1]. Wahrscheinlich das Buch des Jahres!
Berliner Zeitung u. Der Standard, März und April 2010 


[2] Soziale Ungleichheit [3] ist en vogue

Die gesellschaftliche Gleichheit ist in den letzten Jahrzehnten ziemlich aus der Mode gekommen. Wer für Umverteilung von Oben nach Unten plädiert, gilt als verstaubter Retro-Sozialist, wer für mehr Gleichheit plädiert, schnell als naiver Spinner. Wer sich als Egalitarier outet, muss sich den Vorwurf der „Gleichmacherei" gefallen lassen. 

Denn „Gleichmacherei" sei gefährlich, wurde argumentiert: sie würde die Leistungsträger bestrafen, statt deren Anstrengungen zu belohnen; deshalb sei Ungleichheit [4] funktional für prosperierende Gesellschaften. Ja, von einer Gesellschaft [5], die Ungleichheiten zulässt und ihnen sogar positiv gegenüber steht, hätten am Ende alle etwas, wurde argumentiert: Weil die Prosperität, die sie schafft, auch den Ärmsten nützt. Weil, was hätten die denn davon, wenn sie relativ zu den Reichen besser gestellt sind, sie aber eklatanten Mangel litten.


[6] turbo-Marktwirtschaft erfolgreich .. ? - ein Mythos

An all dem ist, kurz gesagt, nichts wahr. In den fünfziger bis siebziger Jahren wurden die westlichen Gesellschaften sukzessive „gleicher" und die Wachstumsraten waren hoch; seither geht die Schere der Ungleichheit wieder auf, und die Wachstumsraten sind niedrig.
Also, dass wachsende Ungleichheit zu einer brummenden Marktwirtschaft notwendigerweise dazu gehört, kann man getrost ins Reich der Mythen verbannen.


[7] foto: buch-cover [8]Ungleichheit schadet auch den Gewinnern!

Der britische Ungleichheitsforscher Richard Wilkinson [9] und die Epidemologin Kate Pickett [10] haben nun aber in einer fundamentalen Untersuchung nachgewiesen, wie sehr wachsende Ungleichheit schadet - und zwar so ziemlich jedem in einer Gesellschaft [11], also sogar den „Profiteuren".

Gesellschaften mit einem hohen Grad an Ungleichheit haben durchschnittlich eine geringere Lebenserwartung, die Bürger sind ungesünder, das Bildungsniveau ist niedriger, mehr Menschen haben psychische Erkrankungen [12], die Kriminalität ist höher - und zwar ziemlich unabhängig vom Nationaleinkommen pro Kopf.
Oder anders gesagt: In armen Ländern steigert Wirtschaftswachstum das allgemeine Wohlbefinden [13] noch, aber in reichen Ländern haben Einkommenssteigerungen weniger Relevanz als die Verteilung des Reichtums. „Gesundheitliche und soziale Probleme kommen signifikant häufiger in Ländern vor, in denen die Einkommensschere weit geöffnet ist", resümieren die Autoren.


[14] Analysiert: Gesellschaftsdaten aus dutzenden Ländern

Die beiden Forscher haben Berge von Datenmaterialen aus dutzenden Ländern zusammengehäuft und die Eindeutigkeit ihres Befundes ist tatsächlich frappierend. Das durchschnittliche Niveau der Lebensqualität ist in Ländern mit hoher Ungleichheit nicht bloß deshalb geringer, weil die Malaise der schlechter Gestellten den Durchschnitt drückt; sondern weil nahezu alle in diesen Gesellschaften unter dem sozialen Stress zu leiden haben.
So hat ein Baby, das im relativ armen Griechenland geboren wird, eine um 1,2 Jahre höhere Lebenserwartung als in den reichen USA [15]. Auch weiße, amerikanische Mittelschichtsbürger haben eine geringere Lebenserwartung als vergleichbare Einwohner in den egalitären skandinavischen Ländern. 

Nun kann man das im Einzelfall auf schlecht funktionierende Institutionen schieben: Krankheit auf das miserable Gesundheitswesen, eklatante Bildungsmängel auf das Schulsystem. Aber das heißt ja nur: Gesellschaften mit einem hohen Grad an Ungleichheit werden von einem antiegalitären Geist durchweht und der produziert schlecht funktionierende Institutionen.


[16] [17]Ungleichheit: Gift für die seelische Gesundheit

Ungleichheit macht uns unglücklich. Sie führt dazu, dass das Vertrauensniveau in einer Gesellschaft sinkt, und damit zu mehr Kriminalität - und, was oft genauso schlimm ist, zu mehr Angst vor Kriminalität.
Gesellschaften mit einem hohen Grad an Ungleichheit sind Gesellschaften mit großer Statuskonkurrenz und die versetzt Menschen in Stress, verdunkelt ihr Gemüt, verschlechtert ihr psychisches Wohlbefinden. Das erklärt vielleicht, warum es auch den relativ Bessergestellten in diesen Gesellschaften oft noch schlecht geht: Weil sie immer Angst haben, dass sich jemand findet, der höher als sie in der sozialen Hierarchie steht. Ungleichheit vergiftet alle sozialen Beziehungen, nicht nur die zwischen der Upper- und der Underclass.


[18] Erstaunliches Fazit: Mehr Gleichheit nützt dem Kapitalismus

Ungleiche Gesellschaften führen für sich oft ins Treffen, dass in ihnen die soziale Mobilität höher ist: Oben und Unten trenne zwar ein hoher Wohlstandsgraben, aber jeder könne in ihnen nach Oben aufsteigen. Die Gewinner gewinnen zwar so richtig, aber jeder kann zum Gewinner werden.
Auch das wird von dem Datenmaterial klar widerlegt. Wer in Gesellschaften, die materielle Armut [19] akzeptieren, in Armut hineingeboren wird, bleibt unten. Und er wird auch noch durch unsichtbare Stereotypisierungen unten gehalten. Er bringt schlechtere Leistungen in der Schule, selbst dann, wenn er über die gleichen Fähigkeiten verfügt wie seine höhersituierten Mitschüler. Der Statusstress durchzieht alles: Selbst Wunden heilen bei Unterprivilegierten langsamer, weil die Stresshormone, die sie andauernd ausschütten, die Heilung verlangsamen. Je ungleicher eine Gesellschaft, umso größer das Problem der Fettleibigkeit.

„Ungleichheit trägt zu Verschlechterungen in vielen Bereichen bei, weil sie der Qualität der Beziehungen schadet", so die Autoren, und das beeinträchtigt nicht nur unser Wohlbefinden, sondern schadet auf lange Sicht auch der Prosperität, während umgekehrt gilt: Wenn alle Menschen aus ihrem Leben etwas machen können, tragen mehr Menschen zum Wohlstand bei. Mehr Gleichheit ist deshalb nicht nur kompatibel mit einer kapitalistischen Marktwirtschaft, sondern es nützt ihr sogar.


[20] grafik: zwei köpfe [21]Andere Gesellschaften möglich ..? - 
Wilkinson & Pickett: "It doesn't take a revolution"

Die beiden britischen Universitätsprofessoren Wilkinson und Pickett haben ein fulminantes Buch geschrieben, das Erkenntnisse der modernen „Glücksforschung" mit einer Fülle von Fakten unterlegt.
Über weite Strecken ist das im nüchternen Ton der empirischen Sozialforschung gehalten, die Daten sprechen schließlich für sich, doch es ist auch ein engagiertes Buch.
Nach Jahrzehnten der Ungleichmacherei müsse es nun wieder in die andere Richtung gehen, fordern die Autoren - und springen gleich auch aus der akademischen Rolle. Ganz im Stile des „engagierten Intellektuellen" rufen sie auf, eine, oder besser: viele, Bewegungen für mehr Gleichheit zu begründen. Mehr Gleichheit ist mit kapitalistischen Marktwirtschaften vereinbar, unterstreichen sie immer wieder: Schließlich haben sie ja auch ihr „positives" Datenmaterial aus demokratischen Marktwirtschaften.

The Equality Trust
Stiftung für Gleichheit Gründung 2009, London

Webseite [22] | Blog [23]

Facebook [24] | Twitter [25]


Schweiz [26] | FB [27] | Twitter [28]

[29]Kanada [30] | Twitter [31]


One Society
Partnerorganisation

Webseite [32] | Blog [33]

Und auch Trendwenden sind möglich: Wenn es ab Mitte der 70er Jahre wieder rasant in Richtung mehr Ungerechtigkeit ging, dann ist das ja ein Beweis dafür, dass es auch wieder ganz schnell in die andere Richtung gehen kann, so ihr raffiniertes Argument.
Es liegt, schließen Wilkinson und Pickett etwas pathetisch, an jeden von uns, einen Wandel anzustoßen. Und: „It Doesn't Take a Revolution" - Es braucht dafür keine Revolution, aber „was wir brauchen, ist ein kontinuierlicher Fluss kleiner Veränderungen" mit dem Ziel: „Die Gesellschaft sozialer machen."
Ein ganz, ganz wichtiges Buch, an dem künftig keiner mehr vorbei kann, der substantiell etwas zur anschwellenden „Sozialstaatsdebatte", oder auch zur „Bildungsdebatte" beitragen will.

Richard Wilkinson und Kate Pickett:
Gleichheit ist Glück. Warum gerechte Gesellschaften für alle besser sind. Tolkemitt-Verlag bei Zweitausendeins. Berlin, 2009. 333 Seite
n. 19,90.- Euro 

Quelle: Robert Misk, Wien (misk.at) [34]


Weitere Veröffentlichungen über die Studie [35] ...  

Telepolis - Soziale Ungleichheit macht Arme und Reiche unglücklich [36]

Humanistischer Pressedienst (hpd) - Ungleichheit und gesellschaftliche Probleme [37]

Tageszeitung (TAZ) - "Ungleichheit zersetzt die Gesellschaften" [38]

Frankfurter Allgemeine - Es schwankt das Fundament des Glücks [39]


Die Autoren haben 2009 eine Stiftung für Gleichheit ins Leben gerufen ...

The Equality Trust - Webseite [40] | Blog [41] | Facebook [42] | Twitter [43]

Anmerkungen:
Ungleichheit [44], Ursache für Gesellschaftszersetzung weltweit. - Beitrag rückdatiert [45]
FOTO: Rathfelder (wp) [46] | university of york [47] | www.equalitytrust.org.uk [48] | schemmi / pixelio.de [49] | Gerd Altmann / pixelio.de [50]

Weitere Beiträge in Kategorie Nachrichten & Gesellschaft

Vollständige Tag-Liste

soziale Gerechtigkeit [55] · soziale Ungleichheit [56] · International [57] · Wohlbefinden [58] · rückdatierter Beitrag [59] · 2010 [60] · gesundheitliche Chancenungleichheit [61] · Grossbritannien [62]

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